Author: Tronserve admin
Friday 30th July 2021 05:18 AM
How High Fives Help Us Get in Touch With Robots
The human sense of feel is so naturally ingrained in our everyday lives that we often don’t notice its presence. Even so, touch is a critical sensing ability that helps people to know the world and connect with others. As the market for robots grows, and as robots become more ingrained into our environments, people will expect robots to participate in a wide variety of social touch interactions. At Oregon State University’s Collaborative Robotics and Intelligent Systems (CoRIS) Institute, I research how to equip everyday robots with better social-physical interaction skills—from playful high-fives to challenging physical therapy routines.
Some commercial robots already have certain physical interaction skills. For illustration, the videoconferencing feature of mobile tele-presence robots can keep far-away family members connected with one another. These robots can also roam distant spaces and bump into people, chairs, and other remote objects. And my Roomba occasionally tickles my toes before turning to vacuum a different area of the room. As a human being, I naturally interpret this (and other Roomba behaviors) as social, even if they were not intended as such. At the same time, for both of these systems, social perceptions of the robots’ physical interaction manners are not well realized, and these social touch-like interactions cannot be controlled in nuanced ways.
Before joining CoRIS early this year, I was a postdoc at the University of Southern California’s Interaction Lab, and prior to that, I obtained my doctoral work at the GRASP Laboratory’s Haptics Group at the University of Pennsylvania. My dissertation concentrated on improving the general understanding of how robot control and planning strategies influence perceptions of social touch interactions. As part of that research, I conducted a study of human-robot hand-to-hand contact, concentrating on an interaction somewhere between a high five and a hand-clapping game. I chose to study this certain interaction because people often high five, and they will likely expect robots in everyday spaces to high five as well!
The implications of motion and planning on the social touch experience in these interactions is also crucial — think about a disappointingly wimpy (or triumphantly amazing) high five that you’ve experienced in the past. This great or terrible high-fiving experience could be fleeting, but it could also influence who you socialize with, who you’re friends with, and even how you see the character or personalities of those around you. This type of perception, opinion, and response could extend to personal robots, too!
An investigation like this requires a mixture of more standard robotics research (e.g., understanding how to move and control a robot arm, developing models of the desired robot motion) along with techniques from design and psychology (e.g., performing interviews with research participants, using best practices from experimental methods in perception). Enabling robots with social touch abilities also comes with many challenges, and even skilled humans can have trouble anticipating what another person is about to do. Think about trying to make satisfying hand contact during a high five—you might know the classic adage “watch the elbow,” but if you’re like me, even this may not always work.
I carried out a research study involving eight different types of human-robot hand contact, with different combinations of the following: interactions with a facially reactive or non-reactive robot, a physically reactive or non-reactive planning strategy, and a lower or higher robot arm stiffness. My robotic system could become facially reactive by changing its facial expression in response to hand contact, or physically responsive by updating its plan of where to move next after sensing hand contact. The stiffness of the robot could be aligned by changing a variable that controlled how quickly the robot’s motors tried to pull its arm to the desired state. I knew from earlier research that fine differences in touch interactions can have a big impact on perceived robot character. For example, if a robot grips an object too tightly or for too long while handing an object to a person, it might be identified as greedy, possessive, or perhaps even Sméagol-like. A robot that lets go too soon might appear careless or sloppy.
In the sample cases of robot grip, it’s clear that understanding people’s perceptions of robot characteristics and personality can help roboticists choose the right robot design based on the proposed operating environment of the robot. I likewise wanted to learn how the facial expressions, physical reactions, and stiffness of a hand-clapping robot would influence human impressions of robot pleasantness, energeticness, dominance, and safety. Understanding this relationship can help roboticists to equip robots with personalities appropriate for the task at hand. For example, a robot assisting people in a grocery store may need to be designed with a high level of pleasantness and only moderate energy, while a maximally effective robot for comedy roast battles may need high degrees of energy and dominance above all else.
After many a late night at the GRASP Lab clapping hands with a big red robot, I was set to make the study. Twenty participants visited the lab to clap hands with our Baxter Research Robot and help me begin to understand how characteristics of this humanoid robot’s social touch inspired its pleasantness, energeticness, dominance, and apparent safety. Baxter interacted with participants using a custom 3D-printed hand that was inlaid with silicone inserts.
This article is originally posted on IEEESPECTRUM.com