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Sunday 19th September 2021 10:37 PM

Moondust, Radiation, and Low Gravity The Health Risks of Living on the Moon


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They were named the “dusty dozen” for good reason. The 12 Apollo astronauts who walked on the lunar surface between 1969 and 1972 kicked up so much moondust that the powdery sediment got lodged in every nook and cranny of their space suits. Caked in the stuff, the astronauts inadvertently tracked the toxic dust into their spacecraft and even back down to Earth upon landing.

 

These NASA astronauts complained of a “lunar hay fever” that bothered their eyes, lungs, and nostrils. A doctor who aided the Apollo 11 crew members emerge from their dust-scattered space module following its ocean splashdown experienced allergic reactions of his own. “Dust is probably one of our greatest inhibitors to a nominal operation on the moon,” Apollo 17 astronaut Gene Cernan, the last man to walk on the moon, said during a postflight debriefing. “I think we can get over other physiological or physical or mechanical problems, except dust.”

 

Billowing clouds of dust particles—jagged and abrasive for want of weathering and atmospheric reactions—are rarely the only health hazards posed by a lunar mission, though. Galactic cosmic rays would bombard lunar inhabitants with a steady stream of high-energy radiation. The level of gravity on the moon—about 17 percent that of Earth’s—could wreak havoc on bones, muscles, and other organs. And then there are the psychological aspects of what one NASA astronaut explained as the “vast loneliness” of the moon.

 

As mankind prepares to return to the moon and eventually colonize it, scientists are now positively probing these risks and beginning to devise medical countermeasures. Yet solid evidence on the health consequences of lunar living is extremely limited. “Except for the Apollo experience, we really have no data,” says Laurence Young, a space medicine scientist in MIT’s department of aeronautics and astronautics—and those Apollo missions were never fashioned with biomedical research goals in mind.

 

In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) was accomplished as a giant floating laboratory from the get-go, and nearly two decades of experiments from the continuously inhabited station do offer some clues about what it might be like for people to live on the moon for extended durations. But a zero-gravity space station orbiting within the protective halo of the Earth’s magnetic field is barely analogous to the moon’s surface, with its partial gravity and harsher radiation.

 

Researchers therefore have to settle for approximations of lunar conditions. They study proxy dust instead of the real thing, because moondust obtained by Apollo astronauts remains tight. (And even those precious Apollo samples became less reactive after coming into contact with the Earth’s moist, oxygen-rich air.) The researchers imitate galactic radiation by using particle accelerators to create the kinds of energetic heavy ions found in deep space. And they have a variety of tricks to fudge one-sixth gravity: They take parabolic flights that induce short bursts of moonlike conditions; use harnesses and other body-weight support systems to mimic the biomechanics envisioned in reduced gravity environments; and place subjects in tilted beds for weeks on end to model the effects of lunar gravity on heart function.

 

The imitations are never perfect, but they are informative. Last year, an interdisciplinary team from Stony Brook University, in New York, exposed human lung cells and mouse brain cells to dust samples that resemble the regolith found in the lunar highlands and on the moon’s volcanic plains. Reviewed with less-reactive particulate materials, the toxic dust caused more genetic mutations and cell death, raising the specter of moondust triggering neurodegeneration and cancer in future lunar explorers. “The DNA is being destroyed, so there is a risk of those types of things happening,” says Rachel Caston, a molecular biologist who led the research. (She’s now at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis.)

 

But will the same hurt happen inside the human body? And if so, would guaranteeing the safety of future moon settlers want the equivalent of a mudroom, an expensive and logistically challenging piece of equipment to haul over to our celestial neighbor? And just how clear would that mudroom have to be to keep astronauts safe?

 

“We just don’t know, and therein lies the current conundrum,” says Kim Prisk, a pulmonary physiologist at the University of California, San Diego. “Is this just a nuisance dust, or something potentially very toxic?”

 

None of the Apollo astronauts endured any long-term ill effects from dust exposure, only acute respiratory problems—which suggests the lunar schmutz might not be too horrible. But the longest stay on the moon so far was the Apollo 17 astronauts’ 75-hour mission, the equivalent of a long weekend getaway. Plus, with only 12 human data points to draw from, many uncertainties remain. To be on the safe side, when it comes to lunar dust, “a mitigation strategy must be in place before we establish habitats on the lunar surface,” says Andrea Hanson, an aerospace engineer at NASA who previously managed the Exercise Physiology & Countermeasures Lab at Johnson Space Center.

 

But Hanson sees a bigger worries than lunar dust: exposure to cosmic rays, the high-energy particles from beyond our solar system that constantly pummel the moon. She worries in certain about what a large shower of these reactive ions might do to an astronaut’s sensitive organs, such as the brain and heart.

 

To study that kind of circumstance, in 2003 NASA built a Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York state. It’s the first and only facility in the United States capable of producing heavy ions of the kind found in outer space. There, scientists blast mice with cosmiclike rays to show, for example, how space radiotherapy can seriously harm the gastrointestinal tract or how a potential prophylactic drug treatment could protect the brain from radiation-induced cognitive decline.

 

Mouse experiments also underpin Mary Bouxsein’s investigations into the effects of partial gravity on musculoskeletal health. Her research will take place aboard the ISS in a spinning cage contraption built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This counterbalanced centrifuge will allow Bouxsein, a biomechanical engineer at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, in Boston, to track mice living at a variety of gravity levels for weeks at a time in order to determine whether lunarlike gravity is enough to maintain proper bone and muscle function. “It’s hard on Earth to do a true artificial gravity experiment,” Bouxsein says, whereas on the ISS “we can really, truly look at the protective effects of artificial gravity.”

 

Ben Levine, director of the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, a joint program of the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, anticipate that the moon’s one-sixth gravity will not put sufficient weight on our bodies to protect against loss of bone mass, muscle strength, and heart pumping capacity. But fortunately, he points out, effective exercise regimes already exist that can be adjusted for life on the moon. “If you do what they do on the space station now,” Levine says, “you should be able to completely prevent ongoing atrophy.”

 

The daily cardio and strength training now common for ISS astronauts might be difficult to accomplish in future moon explorations, though—their 2.5-hour workouts include weightlifting, running, and biking on machines that use bungee cords to pull at them. That’s why Tobias Weber and his colleagues at the European Space Agency’s European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, have been mastering streamlined alternatives. As part of the Movement in Low Gravity Study, ESA’s Space Medicine Team recently used a particularly designed treadmill that allows people to run, walk, and hop while suspended horizontally by a series of cables.

 

Adjusting the force by which pulleys bring users laterally back toward the treadmill allows the system to provide various levels of gravity. With this “verticalized” treadmill setup, the researchers revealed that just a few minutes of daily hopping, in a simple up-and-down movement akin to skipping rope, could exert enough force on the bones, muscles, and tendons in lunar gravity to combat the physiological degradation estimated to occur on the moon.

 

“Jumping may be a really potent multisystem countermeasure,” says aerospace physiologist David Green, a member of the ESA team. As an added bonus, the short bouts of hopping may be more efficient—and less boring—than running on a treadmill, he adds. “At least at the start,” Green says, “it is hard not to smile when you’re hopping.”

 

Ultimately, it’s likely that lunar missions will continue just as they did in the Apollo era: with many health questions unanswered and few protective medical treatments fully worked out. That situation may sound distressing to some would-be moon-trotters, but the uncertainties don’t faze Bill Paloski, director of NASA’s Human Research Program.

 

“I’m honestly not terribly stressed about health and physiology issues,” he says. “We’ll be able to monitor strongly sufficient the overall health and performance of crew members and then give near-real-time support from Earth for most things.” In the worst-case event, astronauts could fly home in a matter of days—a rescue plan that won’t be possible as the mission goes on to Mars and beyond.

 

That’s what makes the moon such an “interesting stepping stone,” Paloski says. “It’s a way of testing a lot of the concepts we have for how to do things on the Mars surface.”



This article is originally posted on IEEESPECTRUM.com


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Posted on : Sunday 19th September 2021 10:37 PM

Moondust, Radiation, and Low Gravity The Health Risks of Living on the Moon


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They were named the “dusty dozen” for good reason. The 12 Apollo astronauts who walked on the lunar surface between 1969 and 1972 kicked up so much moondust that the powdery sediment got lodged in every nook and cranny of their space suits. Caked in the stuff, the astronauts inadvertently tracked the toxic dust into their spacecraft and even back down to Earth upon landing.

 

These NASA astronauts complained of a “lunar hay fever” that bothered their eyes, lungs, and nostrils. A doctor who aided the Apollo 11 crew members emerge from their dust-scattered space module following its ocean splashdown experienced allergic reactions of his own. “Dust is probably one of our greatest inhibitors to a nominal operation on the moon,” Apollo 17 astronaut Gene Cernan, the last man to walk on the moon, said during a postflight debriefing. “I think we can get over other physiological or physical or mechanical problems, except dust.”

 

Billowing clouds of dust particles—jagged and abrasive for want of weathering and atmospheric reactions—are rarely the only health hazards posed by a lunar mission, though. Galactic cosmic rays would bombard lunar inhabitants with a steady stream of high-energy radiation. The level of gravity on the moon—about 17 percent that of Earth’s—could wreak havoc on bones, muscles, and other organs. And then there are the psychological aspects of what one NASA astronaut explained as the “vast loneliness” of the moon.

 

As mankind prepares to return to the moon and eventually colonize it, scientists are now positively probing these risks and beginning to devise medical countermeasures. Yet solid evidence on the health consequences of lunar living is extremely limited. “Except for the Apollo experience, we really have no data,” says Laurence Young, a space medicine scientist in MIT’s department of aeronautics and astronautics—and those Apollo missions were never fashioned with biomedical research goals in mind.

 

In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) was accomplished as a giant floating laboratory from the get-go, and nearly two decades of experiments from the continuously inhabited station do offer some clues about what it might be like for people to live on the moon for extended durations. But a zero-gravity space station orbiting within the protective halo of the Earth’s magnetic field is barely analogous to the moon’s surface, with its partial gravity and harsher radiation.

 

Researchers therefore have to settle for approximations of lunar conditions. They study proxy dust instead of the real thing, because moondust obtained by Apollo astronauts remains tight. (And even those precious Apollo samples became less reactive after coming into contact with the Earth’s moist, oxygen-rich air.) The researchers imitate galactic radiation by using particle accelerators to create the kinds of energetic heavy ions found in deep space. And they have a variety of tricks to fudge one-sixth gravity: They take parabolic flights that induce short bursts of moonlike conditions; use harnesses and other body-weight support systems to mimic the biomechanics envisioned in reduced gravity environments; and place subjects in tilted beds for weeks on end to model the effects of lunar gravity on heart function.

 

The imitations are never perfect, but they are informative. Last year, an interdisciplinary team from Stony Brook University, in New York, exposed human lung cells and mouse brain cells to dust samples that resemble the regolith found in the lunar highlands and on the moon’s volcanic plains. Reviewed with less-reactive particulate materials, the toxic dust caused more genetic mutations and cell death, raising the specter of moondust triggering neurodegeneration and cancer in future lunar explorers. “The DNA is being destroyed, so there is a risk of those types of things happening,” says Rachel Caston, a molecular biologist who led the research. (She’s now at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis.)

 

But will the same hurt happen inside the human body? And if so, would guaranteeing the safety of future moon settlers want the equivalent of a mudroom, an expensive and logistically challenging piece of equipment to haul over to our celestial neighbor? And just how clear would that mudroom have to be to keep astronauts safe?

 

“We just don’t know, and therein lies the current conundrum,” says Kim Prisk, a pulmonary physiologist at the University of California, San Diego. “Is this just a nuisance dust, or something potentially very toxic?”

 

None of the Apollo astronauts endured any long-term ill effects from dust exposure, only acute respiratory problems—which suggests the lunar schmutz might not be too horrible. But the longest stay on the moon so far was the Apollo 17 astronauts’ 75-hour mission, the equivalent of a long weekend getaway. Plus, with only 12 human data points to draw from, many uncertainties remain. To be on the safe side, when it comes to lunar dust, “a mitigation strategy must be in place before we establish habitats on the lunar surface,” says Andrea Hanson, an aerospace engineer at NASA who previously managed the Exercise Physiology & Countermeasures Lab at Johnson Space Center.

 

But Hanson sees a bigger worries than lunar dust: exposure to cosmic rays, the high-energy particles from beyond our solar system that constantly pummel the moon. She worries in certain about what a large shower of these reactive ions might do to an astronaut’s sensitive organs, such as the brain and heart.

 

To study that kind of circumstance, in 2003 NASA built a Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York state. It’s the first and only facility in the United States capable of producing heavy ions of the kind found in outer space. There, scientists blast mice with cosmiclike rays to show, for example, how space radiotherapy can seriously harm the gastrointestinal tract or how a potential prophylactic drug treatment could protect the brain from radiation-induced cognitive decline.

 

Mouse experiments also underpin Mary Bouxsein’s investigations into the effects of partial gravity on musculoskeletal health. Her research will take place aboard the ISS in a spinning cage contraption built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This counterbalanced centrifuge will allow Bouxsein, a biomechanical engineer at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, in Boston, to track mice living at a variety of gravity levels for weeks at a time in order to determine whether lunarlike gravity is enough to maintain proper bone and muscle function. “It’s hard on Earth to do a true artificial gravity experiment,” Bouxsein says, whereas on the ISS “we can really, truly look at the protective effects of artificial gravity.”

 

Ben Levine, director of the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, a joint program of the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, anticipate that the moon’s one-sixth gravity will not put sufficient weight on our bodies to protect against loss of bone mass, muscle strength, and heart pumping capacity. But fortunately, he points out, effective exercise regimes already exist that can be adjusted for life on the moon. “If you do what they do on the space station now,” Levine says, “you should be able to completely prevent ongoing atrophy.”

 

The daily cardio and strength training now common for ISS astronauts might be difficult to accomplish in future moon explorations, though—their 2.5-hour workouts include weightlifting, running, and biking on machines that use bungee cords to pull at them. That’s why Tobias Weber and his colleagues at the European Space Agency’s European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, have been mastering streamlined alternatives. As part of the Movement in Low Gravity Study, ESA’s Space Medicine Team recently used a particularly designed treadmill that allows people to run, walk, and hop while suspended horizontally by a series of cables.

 

Adjusting the force by which pulleys bring users laterally back toward the treadmill allows the system to provide various levels of gravity. With this “verticalized” treadmill setup, the researchers revealed that just a few minutes of daily hopping, in a simple up-and-down movement akin to skipping rope, could exert enough force on the bones, muscles, and tendons in lunar gravity to combat the physiological degradation estimated to occur on the moon.

 

“Jumping may be a really potent multisystem countermeasure,” says aerospace physiologist David Green, a member of the ESA team. As an added bonus, the short bouts of hopping may be more efficient—and less boring—than running on a treadmill, he adds. “At least at the start,” Green says, “it is hard not to smile when you’re hopping.”

 

Ultimately, it’s likely that lunar missions will continue just as they did in the Apollo era: with many health questions unanswered and few protective medical treatments fully worked out. That situation may sound distressing to some would-be moon-trotters, but the uncertainties don’t faze Bill Paloski, director of NASA’s Human Research Program.

 

“I’m honestly not terribly stressed about health and physiology issues,” he says. “We’ll be able to monitor strongly sufficient the overall health and performance of crew members and then give near-real-time support from Earth for most things.” In the worst-case event, astronauts could fly home in a matter of days—a rescue plan that won’t be possible as the mission goes on to Mars and beyond.

 

That’s what makes the moon such an “interesting stepping stone,” Paloski says. “It’s a way of testing a lot of the concepts we have for how to do things on the Mars surface.”



This article is originally posted on IEEESPECTRUM.com

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dusty dozen 12 apolio astronauts 1069 and 1972